The anatomical description of the whole animal has been completed at the electron microscopy level and its complete cell lineage, which is invariant between animals, has been established (Brenner, 1973; Byerly et al., 1976; Sulston et al., 1983; Wood, 1988a; Lewis and Fleming, 1995). Various tissues open to the outside through this cuticle (Intro FIG 3).
There are two sexes: a self-fertilizing hermaphrodite (XX) and a male (XO). The excretory pore is located at midline on the ventral side of the head (Intro FIG 3E).
In this study, we used the common garden snail to identify the allohormone that is responsible for this physiological change in the female system of this simultaneous hermaphrodite.
The love dart allohormone (LDA) was isolated from extracts derived from mucous glands that coat the dart before it is stabbed through the partner's body wall.
Special plates in the throat called the pharyngeal mill grind up all that material, and the fish literally poop out sand as a result — each parrotfish poops out up to 840 pounds a year.