Normally the resolvconf program is run only by network interface configuration programs such as ifup(8), ifdown, Network Manager(8), dhclient(8), and pppd(8); and by local nameservers such as dnsmasq(8).
These programs obtain nameserver information from some source and push it to resolvconf.
There is a reason why this is marked as the best answer...because it is indeed! I would add that, after all the steps you mentioned, a network restart might be necessary for everything to work smoothly (it was for me....
On Ubuntu 14.04 Server about half the time a cold boot would result no internet connectivity using a URL but an IP-Address would work. On Ubuntu 14.04 I got 2 external IP-addresses for DNS that wouldn't recognise clients inside my home network.
To add a nameserver IP address, add an option line consisting of dns-nameserver and the address.